The End of War – Chapter 2

Chapter 2 – The Nature of Human Aggression

Literacy in Our Shared Humanity (understanding the anatomy of aggression, how children are more vulnerable to trauma than adults, why aggression is not always violent, the difference between warning aggression and hostile aggression, how curiosity and empathy can melt aggression, the pain that breeds aggression, understanding nuclear weapons in the context of aggression)

Literacy in the Art of Living (the importance of using self-reflection to understand the causes of our aggression, using empathy to perceive the pain causing the aggression of others, the importance of remaining calm amidst conflict)

Literacy in the Art of Waging Peace (understanding how aggression can result from fear of new ideas, understanding how aggressive nations resemble two lions trapped in a cage, why peaceful methods are needed to reduce aggression, the importance of language for resolving personal and international conflicts)

Literacy in the Art of Listening (using empathy to hear people on a deeper level)

Keywords: calm, conflict resolution, curiosity, empathy, human condition, nonviolence, nuclear weapons, trauma, waging peace, war